Exacum - also known as the Persian violet. It is an ornamental plant up to 30 cm with beautiful flowers. Persian violet decorates the home garden or porch.
His birthplace is East and South Asia, about. Socotra, the Malay Archipelago. The flower is growing 1 year. There are 25 species.
The plant has a straight vertical stems with rounded lanceolate leaves that are pointed at the end. The color is monochromatic light bright green. Leaf length is 3-4 cm. Violet blooms profusely. The flowers are pink - bluish color. The core is yellow which is located in the center. It blooms from summer to late autumn.
The flower is grown in small pots. Pots are folded into several groups. During flowering is a nice light scent.
Care and content of Persian violets
Plant is prefers bright and sunny places. Exacum is necessary to shade in the hot period; otherwise the flowers begin to turn pale. Brown spots will appear on the leaves, if the direct rays of the sun fall on them.
For Persian violets optimal temperature is 18-20 degrees. In winter, you can reduce the temperature to 14-15 degrees. On a hot summer months pot is put into the fresh air in the shade. You need to create the lighting of not less than 12 hours for a good flower growth. Indoors is often installed artificial light.
Avoid the drafts, if you carry a pot on the open loggia. Exacum bad feels at temperatures above 24 degrees.
The composition of the soil
The soil should be loose and nutritious. At the bottom of the pot is placed a layer of expanded clay as drainage.
Soil composition: sand, peat, leaf and turf ground, humus. All components are necessary to take in equal proportions and mix. You can use ready-mix from the supermarket for one or two summer ornamental flowers.
Humidity should be created indoors of 60-90%. If necessary, is put the pot on the tray with moist pebbles in the hot and dry season. Persian violet should be regularly is sprayed in the summer.
Flower prefers abundant watering but you need to avoid over-wetting the soil. The drying up of the soil is the cause of wilting flowers. For irrigation are used the rainwater (soft). You can use plain water, but it should be standing for 19 hours. In winter, reduce watering, but the land must always be wet.
Fertilizer is used from early spring to late autumn. The fertilizer is used regularly 3-4 times a month. Usually, it is used fertilizer with store mineral-based for decorative and flowering plants. Flower growers added fertilizer a month after planting seedlings.
Exacum is transplanted each year. For transplant use a mixture of peat, sand, turf and leaf soil and humus. All components are taken in equal proportions.
The root system of violets is small, thus the pot is chosen, small and not deep. Previously on the bottom of the pot is placed ¼ of drainage from the expanded clay. The soil should be well skip the water and the air.
Persian violet is propagated in two ways: by seeds and cuttings.
By seeds: For sowing seeds, the soil should be loose and well airy. Seeds are planted in early spring. At the bottom of the pot should be the drainage and the soil is constantly is maintained in a wet state.
Fertilizers are added to the soil beforehand. Seeds are sown evenly, then lightly is sprinkled with sand and covered with a glass bulb, or plastic film.
The temperature is kept around 20 degrees before the appearance sprouts. You need to air regularly shoots for fresh air supply. As soon as the first shoots appear, you need provide a constant light for 10-12 hours per day. Seedlings dive into separate containers after germination. Seedlings pinch out after a while, when it take root in the new location.
By cuttings: The stalks are cut off from the bush in the spring and are placed in the loose soil. The pot is covered on top with a film or glass bulb and every day is ventilated it.
After the appearance of the root system, the cuttings are transplanted into pots on a few pieces giving them the form of a bush to create the flowering splendor. You need to constantly maintain a damp soil.
Diseases and pests
Persian violet is often affected spider mites, aphids, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus.
If you a flower too often is watering, the roots will begin to rot. Insufficient watering and dry land, leads to drying and lethargy of leaves and flowers.
Difficulties and tips on how to care for the Persian violet
Flowering will be lengthy if you will regularly remove withered flowers. Plants not expedient contain more than a year, so in late autumn after flowering it is throw out. If violet leave in the second year, it will bloom with small flowers.
The plant is cut almost to the root after the end of flowering. In this form it hibernates.
In winter Exacum need to create high humidity and good lighting. During the heating season it is necessary to put the pot on the tray with water or moist moss.
Flowers are planted in pots in vertical and suspended position. You can plant violets in pot on some pieces with different colors in a wide container. In this way you will achieve a harmonious combination of color and design.
Persian violet Care at home is not easy. If you follow all of the above outlined recommendations (regular watering and temperature control), you will enjoy for a long time blooming violet.