Primula houseplant (Primula, Primrose) is an annual or perennial herbaceous plant of Primulaceae family. The genus includes up to 500 species and several forms of semi shrubs.
The flower prefers a temperate climate. It grows on the European part, in Asia, China and North America. Primrose flowers decorate gardens, parks, homesteads as outdoor plants and as houseplant they are perfectly grown as indoor. Breeders created unpretentious species that are easy to care for.
Each plant species has a different flowering period. Most varieties begin to bloom in early spring and flowering lasts all summer. You can buy primrose flowers already at the end of winter by the 8th of March.
In indoor, as a rule, two varieties of flower are grown:
- Primula malacoides is an annual plant.
- Primula obconica (back-lanceolate or back-conical) - perennial of plant. The leaves are located on long petioles which are slightly covered with fluff. Length of sheet is up to 10 cm. The flowers of the plant are white, lilac, blue, red and pink and collected in the inflorescence of the umbrella.
The garden primrose is grown in door for distillation. It is often found in flower shops in early spring. Garden varieties are not toxic and almost never cause allergies. They are planted in the garden after flowering. Many species of garden primrose are able to winter in outside and can bloom for several years in a row.
The plant also has healing properties as an addition to a beautiful bloom. It contains a large amount of vitamin C. Leaves are used in fresh salad. Decoction of primrose is used as a diaphoretic and diuretic. You should limit the direct contact of children with the flower.
The Primrose prefers moist soils in a natural environment. It is often found along rivers, lakes, various streams where soils with high humidity.
Primula reaches a height of up to 1 m.
The leaves are whole, 15 cm long, wrinkled and the surface is covered with hairs. They are located on long petioles and create a basal rosette at the base. There are notches on the perimeter of the sheet.
A short root has a lot of thin outgrowths. The inflorescence is composed of 5 sepals that are fused together.
Some primrose has flowers which grow directly from the rosette. There are no flowers in such varieties. Primrose flowers have different colors and shade. Flowers are single or collected in a racemose inflorescence.
The flower bud is leafless at the apex.
Fruit - a box.
How to Grow Primrose Indoors
Most varieties are unpretentious in care but some requirements must be following for long and successful flowering.
You need to provide bright lighting indoors. The Primrose needs a large amount of bright scattered light for early flowering. Primrose is recommended to shade from the southern side during the lunch period. The plant is able to withstand short-term direct sunlight.
The Primrose is kept in a cool climate during the winter. The optimum temperature indoor is 12-15 degrees. The sort of Primrose Obconica is heat-loving plant and it is kept at a temperature of 16-20 degrees Celsius. The temperature indoor is reduced to 15-16 degrees for all varieties after flowering.
The plant is not demanding to moisture.
Too low humidity causes dry out the end of leaf. The Primrose is sprayed with soft water without lime in a hot period. The water should not fall on the flowers otherwise the flowers lose decorativeness.
The soil must be constantly moist during the entire flowering period. Overabundance of moisture causes the decay of the root system. Watering is reduced after flowering or if the temperature inside is low.
Complex fertilizers of a weak concentration are added every 2 weeks when the first buds appeared. Fertilizers are used from the beginning of appearance of buds and until the end of flowering. If you add fertilizer before the buds appeared, the leaf will begin to grow instead of the flowers.
The Primrose does not require a special composition of the soil.
You can use the purchased soil for decorative flowering plants or prepare it by yourself. Mix has to contain leafy soil, peat, sand or vermiculite. All components should be taken in equal proportions. You can also add turf ground in the same proportion.
Expanded clay as a drainage is first placed in a small layer on the bottom of the pot. Drainage removes excess moisture and prevents the rotting of the roots.
Primrose is repotted after flowering. Garden varieties are transplanted outside. Houseplant varieties are grown in door and when it is necessary to divide the bush in pieces for separate pots.
Primrose is propagated in two ways by dividing the bush after flowering and seeds.
You have to pre-conduct artificial pollination to obtain seeds. Seeds after ripening are harvested and sown on the surface of the soil in small containers from June to July. The seeds are sprinkled with a small layer of soil after sowing.
Use a sprayer to moisten, but checked that the seeds do not float to the surface. The container with seeds is covered with a polyethylene film or is placed in a mini greenhouse.
It is necessary to keep a constant temperature about 18 degrees in the greenhouse. The container with seeds is protected from direct sunlight. You need to provide enough scattered light for successful growth. The first shoots should appear 2-3 weeks after sowing. A month later, when the seedlings have 2-3 leaves, they are transplanted into separate pots.
Dividing the bush
The lateral processes are separated and transplanted into separate containers in the early spring. Calcined sand is used as the soil.
Pots with sprouts are covered with a transparent bulb on top or placed in a mini greenhouse before the appearance of roots. Sprouts are transplanted into individual pots after 1 to 2 months (roots should appear and grow stronger until this time). Greenhouse conditions are no longer needed by this time.
Another way: The Primrose is covered with moss in early spring. The moss should be regularly moistened. Side branches will appear after a short time. New basal rosettes are planted in separate pots when the flower is formed. Many species will have new rosettes after transplanting to open ground.
Cutting of primroses
The stalk is taken from the longest roots which has a developed basal rosette and which are located near the ground. Primula Auricula has growths which appear on the rhizome of axillary buds.
Sections are created on the root in which new buds will appear after a short period. This procedure should be done in early summer. The bushes will be form with their own developed basal rosettes after a few months.
Each rosette will have its own roots next year. The root cuttings must be separated and planted separately.
Pot for transplantation is chosen 30-40 cm high because 3/4 of the capacity is taken moss-sphagnum which is located on the bottom. You need to control the constant moisture of the moss. Root cuttings are placed into a moss. It is necessary the upper parts of the leaves remain on the surface. The bottom large sheets are cut off. The roots will appear after 2-3 months.
Primula forced flowering
Distillation is an early forced bloom of primrose.
For example how to make the plant abundantly blossom until the 8th of March or in mid-winter?
You have to use young plants 2-3 year old or divided bushes. The plant is excavated together with the earth layer at the end of October. Then it is placed in a dark cold room (cellar, greenhouse) with a temperature of 2-5 degrees. The bush does not need watering.
The temperature is above 5 degrees and the lighting will cause the appearance of leaves.
The plant is transferred to a bright and warm room 3-4 weeks before the desired flowering. Then the temperature is gradually raised to 12-15 degrees and the watering is gradually renewed.
After a short time, depending on the species, the buds will start to appear and the primrose will bloom. Some varieties start to bloom in February while others start bloom on the 8th of March.
The plant is not fertilized until buds appear, then a weak solution of complex mineral fertilizer is added every 2 weeks.
The Primula is kept in a cool and bright place after flowering. It is watered moderately before spring. The flower is transplanted outdoor in early autumn.
The bush can be divided and reused after 2 years.
Not all kinds are suitable for distillation. For this purpose, small shrubs are perfectly used for flowering: Primula x pruhoniciana hort, Pink, Omitted.
Diseases and difficulties in care
Primula will be attacked aphids, thrips and spider mite if the high temperature is inside of room.
The flower is treated with insecticide against pests.
The main difficulties of the Primula care.
- Primrose primrose - you get abundant flowering.
- Primula Sieboldii - large flowers.
- The leaves are drooping and soft - excessive watering.
- The leaves are large and beautiful but the flowers are small - an overabundance of fertilizers, a large amount of nitrogen or lighting is inadequate.
- Dark spots on the leaves and a small amount of buds - the plant is kept in a dry and hot climate. You need to lower the temperature and increase the watering.
- Leaves shriveled and pale - low temperature in indoor.
- The surface of the leaves is yellow and pale - the water for irrigation is poor quality or the watering is too abundant.
- Grayish-white spots on the leaves - defeat by gray rot. This is a fungal disease. You need to remove the affected parts of the plant and spray the surface plant with a fungicide to remove the disease.